The big question here is what you mean by "kernel parameters." Linux is unusual among operating systems in general, and Unix in particular, in that it can accept a vector (list) of parameters which are passed to it by its bootloader (LILO, Syslinux, GRUB, etc).
The kernel parses these and uses their values to over-ride certain compile time defaults. But it also preserves and exposes that parameter list through the /proc/cmdline node. You can read it with the cat command as if it were a regular file; but, as with the rest of the contents of /proc, it's a pseudo-file with contents dynamically returned by the kernel.
Here's a typical Linux kernel command line: BOOT_IMAGE=/vmlinuz-4.4.0-96-generic root=/dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-root ro console=tty0 console=ttyS1,115200n8 quiet
As you can see it's mostly a suite of KEY=VALUE pairs, similar to your shell environment. Ultimately some of these parameters are only used by the initrd/initramfs init, or the system init process, or by scripts and programs started by init (systemd on most common Linux systems today).
For example ro indicates that the root filesystem should be initially mounted in "read-only" mode. The actual mounting of the root filesystem (as specified by the root= parameter) is performed by the kernel. But the common case there is for an initial RAM filesystem (ramdisk) to be created, mounted on root, and populated (initramfs images are a compressed cpio compatible file). An executable named init in the root directory of that RAM disk image can then load modules, activate LVM volume groups, attach network storage systems such as from a SAN (storage area network), or do other things before mounting the (real) root filesystem and performing a pivot_root.
After pivot_root the kernel will search for the init executable (normally a component of systemd under most modern Linux distributions) and execute it with KEY=VALUE parameters in the init environment an any remaining kernel parameters (such as an old SysV runlevel number or indicated like "S" for single user mode) or the "quiet" seen in my example, passed as command line arguments.
In other words the Linux boot process, and its handling of dynamically (bootloader) provided parameters is complicated.
You can read more canonical documentation on this here:
Of particular note is that the dynamic loading of Linux kernel modules (using the modprobe, but which is often triggered by events in the udev ... user-space device management ... subsystem ... this loading mechanism scans the kernel command line and relays those parameters to modules as they are loaded. Thus any parameters for modules can be established at boot time (but possibly over-ridden at load time, and, in some cases, they can be modified by operations on their own nodes under the */sys*** filesystem (which is a kernel interface abstraction similar /proc).
I hope that helps.
As for the meta question; I think it should be fine in the Unix & Linux StackExchange. Feel free to relay my answer over there or wherever is deemed to be appropriate for the question and its answers.