Issuing the following commands returns the displayed results:

$ ping -c 4 freebsd.stackexchange.com

Pinging freebsd.stackexchange.com [] with 32 bytes of data:
Reply from bytes=32 time=15ms TTL=56
Reply from bytes=32 time=15ms TTL=56
Reply from bytes=32 time=15ms TTL=56
Reply from bytes=32 time=15ms TTL=56

Ping statistics for
    Packets: Sent = 4, Received = 4, Lost = 0 (0% loss),
Approximate round trip times in milli-seconds:
    Minimum = 15ms, Maximum = 15ms, Average = 15ms

$ curl -X HEAD -I https://freebsd.stackexchange.com
HTTP/2 404
x-request-guid: 91d4d75c-cf9c-45dc-aea0-a5ffdb1061b7
accept-ranges: bytes
date: Mon, 23 Dec 2019 14:55:35 GMT
via: 1.1 varnish
x-served-by: cache-mad22044-MAD
x-cache: MISS
x-cache-hits: 0
x-timer: S1577112935.892355,VS0,VE110
vary: Fastly-SSL
x-dns-prefetch-control: off
set-cookie: prov=f1b9e1bc-4bf3-d056-52fe-6c343fdd9f7e; domain=.stackexchange.com; expires=Fri, 01-Jan-2055 00:00:00 GMT; path=/; HttpOnly
content-length: 3850

When I try to open the the link in a browser a page is displayed with the following message:

Couldn't find freebsd.stackexchange.com
The Q&A site freebsd.stackexchange.com doesn't seem to exist…yet

How can that be?

  • @terdon I am trying to understand why the domain exists but the site does not. – Paulo Tomé Dec 23 '19 at 16:03
  • Yeah, sorry, I figured it out eventually. – terdon Dec 23 '19 at 16:05
  • 3
    the *.stackexchange.com are virtual hosts, which are usually implemented with wildcard dns records (the reason for those results), the required Host: header of HTTP/1.1, the server name indication of TLS, and wildcard public key certificates. – mosvy Dec 25 '19 at 7:26
  • 2
    subdomains do not need to resolve to the same IP, and most of the time they don't (eg. mail.google.com will not resolve to the same IP as maps.google.com). – mosvy Dec 25 '19 at 7:34

The foo.stackexchange.com names are subdomains, they all go to the same actual IP. For example:

$ for i in unix ubuntu apple workplace english french; do ping -c 1 $i.stackexchange.com | grep PING; done
PING unix.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
PING ubuntu.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
PING apple.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
PING workplace.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
PING english.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
PING french.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.

You get the exact same response no matter what you put in front of the stackexchange.com:

$ for i in snotty snooty smelly grimy; do ping -c 1 $i.stackexchange.com | grep PING; done
PING snotty.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
PING snooty.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
PING smelly.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.
PING grimy.stackexchange.com ( 56(84) bytes of data.

There is no FreeBSD site on the stackexchange network, so you can't actually visit any site using the freebsd.stackexchange.com. Instead, you are taken to a landing page on the stackexchange.com parent domain:

enter image description here

This is a very common pattern. Most hosting providers, if not all, will give you multiple (even unlimited for higher end plans) foo.yoursite.com subdomains.


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